Smaller grands satisfy the space and cost needs of domestic use; as well, they are used in some small teaching studios and smaller performance venues. Ragtime music, popularized by composers such as Scott Joplin , reached a broader audience by Vestal Press, Lanham Maryland. Archived from the original on
Other Chord & Scale Charts
Despite Ada having her piano back, she ultimately finds herself missing Baines watching her as she plays. She returns to him one afternoon, where they submit to their desire for one another. Alisdair, having become suspicious of their relationship, hears them having sex as he walks by Baines' house, and then watches them through a crack in the wall.
Outraged, he follows her the next day and confronts her in the forest, where he attempts to force himself on her, despite her intense resistance. He eventually exacts a promise from Ada that she will not see Baines. Soon afterwards, Ada sends her daughter with a package for Baines, containing a single piano key with an inscribed love declaration reading "Dear George you have my heart Ada McGrath". Flora does not want to deliver the package and brings the piano key instead to Alisdair.
After reading the love note burnt onto the piano key, Alisdair furiously returns home with an ax and cuts off Ada's index finger to deprive her of the ability to play the piano. He then sends Flora who witnessed this to Baines with the severed finger wrapped in cloth, with the message that if Baines ever attempts to see Ada again, he will chop off more fingers. Later that night, while touching Ada in her sleep, Alisdair hears what he believes to be Ada's voice inside of his head, asking him to let Baines take her away.
Deeply shaken, he goes to Baines' house and asks if she has ever spoken words to him. Baines assures him she has not. Ultimately, it is assumed that he decides to send Ada and Flora away with Baines and dissolve their marriage once she has recovered from her injuries. They depart from the same beach on which she first landed in New Zealand. As it sinks, she deliberately tangles her foot in the rope trailing after it.
She is pulled overboard but, deep under water, changes her mind and kicks free and is pulled to safety. In an epilogue , Ada describes her new life with Baines and Flora in Nelson , where she has started to give piano lessons in their new home, and her severed finger has been replaced with a silver finger made by Baines. Ada has also started to take speech lessons in order to learn how to speak again.
Casting the role of Ada was a difficult process. Sigourney Weaver was Campion's first choice, but she turned down the role because she was taking a break from film at the time.
Jennifer Jason Leigh was also considered, but she could not meet with Campion to read the script because she was committed to shooting the film Rush The casting for Flora occurred after Hunter had been selected for the part. Anna Paquin ended up winning the role of Flora over 5, other girls. In July , Campion revealed that she originally intended for the main character to drown in the sea after going overboard after her piano. Production on the film started in April , filming began on 11 May and lasted until July , and production officially ended on 22 December Reviews for the film were overwhelmingly positive.
The website's critical consensus reads, "Powered by Holly Hunter's main performance, The Piano is a truth-seeking romance played in the key of erotic passion. This album is rated in the top soundtrack albums of all time and Nyman's work is regarded as a key voice in the film, which has a mute lead character. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the film. For the instrument, see Piano. For other uses, see Piano disambiguation.
US theatrical release poster. Jan Chapman Productions CiBy For more details, see The Piano soundtrack. Extract from the score of the film "The Piano". Archived 11 December at the Wayback Machine.
Jane Campion's The Piano. Retrieved 13 July Museum of the Moving Image. Archived from the original on 16 February Holly Hunter Takes Hollywood". Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 25 July Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 3 July Retrieved March 20, Retrieved 2 July Did she really deserve an Oscar?
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Boston Society of Film Critics. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. The Off-Hollywood Film Guide: Random House Publishing Group. MIDI inputs and outputs connect a digital piano to other electronic instruments or musical devices. For example, a digital piano's MIDI out signal could be connected by a patch cord to a synth module , which would allow the performer to use the keyboard of the digital piano to play modern synthesizer sounds.
Early digital pianos tended to lack a full set of pedals but the synthesis software of later models such as the Yamaha Clavinova series synthesised the sympathetic vibration of the other strings such as when the sustain pedal is depressed and full pedal sets can now be replicated. The processing power of digital pianos has enabled highly realistic pianos using multi-gigabyte piano sample sets with as many as ninety recordings, each lasting many seconds, for each key under different conditions e.
Additional samples emulate sympathetic resonance of the strings when the sustain pedal is depressed, key release, the drop of the dampers, and simulations of techniques such as re-pedalling. The MIDI file records the physics of a note rather than its resulting sound and recreates the sounds from its physical properties e. Computer based software, such as Modartt's Pianoteq , can be used to manipulate the MIDI stream in real time or subsequently to edit it.
This type of software may use no samples but synthesize a sound based on aspects of the physics that went into the creation of a played note. In the s, some pianos include an acoustic grand piano or upright piano combined with MIDI electronic features.
Such a piano can be played acoustically, or the keyboard can be used as a MIDI controller , which can trigger a synthesizer module or music sampler. Some electronic feature-equipped pianos such as the Yamaha Disklavier electronic player piano , introduced in , are outfitted with electronic sensors for recording and electromechanical solenoids for player piano -style playback.
On playback, the solenoids move the keys and pedals and thus reproduce the original performance. Disklaviers have been manufactured in the form of upright, baby grand, and grand piano styles including a nine-foot concert grand. Reproducing systems have ranged from relatively simple, playback-only models to professional models that can record performance data at resolutions that exceed the limits of normal MIDI data.
Pianos can have over 12, individual parts,  supporting six functional features: This is especially true of the outer rim. It is most commonly made of hardwood , typically hard maple or beech , and its massiveness serves as an essentially immobile object from which the flexible soundboard can best vibrate.
According to Harold A. Conklin,  the purpose of a sturdy rim is so that, " Hardwood rims are commonly made by laminating thin, hence flexible, strips of hardwood, bending them to the desired shape immediately after the application of glue.
Theodore Steinway in to reduce manufacturing time and costs. Previously, the rim was constructed from several pieces of solid wood, joined and veneered, and European makers used this method well into the 20th century. The thick wooden posts on the underside grands or back uprights of the piano stabilize the rim structure, and are made of softwood for stability.
The requirement of structural strength, fulfilled by stout hardwood and thick metal, makes a piano heavy. The pinblock, which holds the tuning pins in place, is another area where toughness is important. It is made of hardwood typically hard maple or beech , and is laminated for strength, stability and longevity.
Piano strings also called piano wire , which must endure years of extreme tension and hard blows, are made of high carbon steel. They are manufactured to vary as little as possible in diameter, since all deviations from uniformity introduce tonal distortion.
The bass strings of a piano are made of a steel core wrapped with copper wire, to increase their mass whilst retaining flexibility. If all strings throughout the piano's compass were individual monochord , the massive bass strings would overpower the upper ranges. Makers compensate for this with the use of double bichord strings in the tenor and triple trichord strings throughout the treble. The plate harp , or metal frame, of a piano is usually made of cast iron.
A massive plate is advantageous. Since the strings vibrate from the plate at both ends, an insufficiently massive plate would absorb too much of the vibrational energy that should go through the bridge to the soundboard. While some manufacturers use cast steel in their plates, most prefer cast iron.
Cast iron is easy to cast and machine, has flexibility sufficient for piano use, is much more resistant to deformation than steel, and is especially tolerant of compression. Plate casting is an art, since dimensions are crucial and the iron shrinks about one percent during cooling.
Including an extremely large piece of metal in a piano is potentially an aesthetic handicap. Piano makers overcome this by polishing, painting, and decorating the plate. Plates often include the manufacturer's ornamental medallion. In an effort to make pianos lighter, Alcoa worked with Winter and Company piano manufacturers to make pianos using an aluminum plate during the s. Aluminum piano plates were not widely accepted, and were discontinued.
The numerous parts of a piano action are generally made from hardwood , such as maple , beech , and hornbeam , however, since World War II, makers have also incorporated plastics. Early plastics used in some pianos in the late s and s, proved disastrous when they lost strength after a few decades of use. Beginning in , the New York branch of the Steinway firm incorporated Teflon , a synthetic material developed by DuPont , for some parts of its Permafree grand action in place of cloth bushings, but abandoned the experiment in due to excessive friction and a "clicking" that developed over time; Teflon is "humidity stable" whereas the wood adjacent to the Teflon swells and shrinks with humidity changes, causing problems.
More recently, the Kawai firm built pianos with action parts made of more modern materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic , and the piano parts manufacturer Wessell, Nickel and Gross has launched a new line of carefully engineered composite parts. Thus far these parts have performed reasonably, but it will take decades to know if they equal the longevity of wood.
In all but the lowest quality pianos the soundboard is made of solid spruce that is, spruce boards glued together along the side grain. Spruce's high ratio of strength to weight minimizes acoustic impedance while offering strength sufficient to withstand the downward force of the strings. The best piano makers use quarter-sawn, defect-free spruce of close annular grain, carefully seasoning it over a long period before fabricating the soundboards. This is the identical material that is used in quality acoustic guitar soundboards.
Cheap pianos often have plywood soundboards. The design of the piano hammers requires having the hammer felt be soft enough so that it will not create loud, very high harmonics that a hard hammer will cause. The hammer must be lightweight enough to move swiftly when a key is pressed; yet at the same time, it must be strong enough so that it can hit strings hard when the player strikes the keys forcefully for fortissimo playing or sforzando accents.
In the early years of piano construction, keys were commonly made from sugar pine. In the s, they are usually made of spruce or basswood. Spruce is typically used in high-quality pianos. Black keys were traditionally made of ebony , and the white keys were covered with strips of ivory. However, since ivory-yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, or are illegal in some countries, makers use plastics almost exclusively.
Also, ivory tends to chip more easily than plastic. Legal ivory can still be obtained in limited quantities. The Yamaha firm invented a plastic called Ivorite that they claim mimics the look and feel of ivory. It has since been imitated by other makers.
Almost every modern piano has 52 white keys and 36 black keys for a total of 88 keys seven octaves plus a minor third, from A 0 to C 8. Many older pianos only have 85 keys seven octaves from A 0 to A 7.
Some piano manufacturers have extended the range further in one or both directions. For example, the Imperial Bösendorfer has nine extra keys at the bass end, giving a total of 97 keys and an eight octave range. These extra keys are sometimes hidden under a small hinged lid that can cover the keys to prevent visual disorientation for pianists unfamiliar with the extra keys, or the colours of the extra white keys are reversed black instead of white.
The extra keys are added primarily for increased resonance from the associated strings; that is, they vibrate sympathetically with other strings whenever the damper pedal is depressed and thus give a fuller tone.
Only a very small number of works composed for piano actually use these notes. The toy piano manufacturer Schoenhut started manufacturing both grands and uprights with only 44 or 49 keys, and shorter distance between the keyboard and the pedals.
These pianos are true pianos with action and strings. The pianos were introduced to their product line in response to numerous requests in favor of it.
It consisted of two keyboards lying one above each other. The lower keyboard has the usual 88 keys and the upper keyboard has 76 keys. When pressing the upper keyboard the internal mechanism pulls down the corresponding key on the lower keyboard, but an octave higher. This lets a pianist reach two octaves with one hand, impossible on a conventional piano.
Due to its double keyboard musical work that were originally created for double-manual harpsichord such as Goldberg Variations by Bach become much easier to play, since playing on a conventional single keyboard piano involve complex and hand-tangling cross-hand movements.
The design also featured a special fourth pedal that coupled the lower and upper keyboard, so when playing on the lower keyboard the note one octave higher also played.
Pianos have been built with alternative keyboard systems, e. Pianos have had pedals, or some close equivalent, since the earliest days. In the 18th century, some pianos used levers pressed upward by the player's knee instead of pedals.
Most grand pianos in the US have three pedals: Most modern upright pianos also have three pedals: In Europe the standard for upright pianos is two pedals: The sustain pedal or, damper pedal is often simply called "the pedal", since it is the most frequently used. It is placed as the rightmost pedal in the group.
It lifts the dampers from all keys, sustaining all played notes. In addition, it alters the overall tone by allowing all strings, including those not directly played, to reverberate. When all of the other strings on the piano can vibrate, this allows sympathetic vibration of strings that are harmonically related to the sounded pitches. The soft pedal or una corda pedal is placed leftmost in the row of pedals. In the earliest pianos whose unisons were bichords rather than trichords, the action shifted so that hammers hit a single string, hence the name una corda , or 'one string'.
The effect is to soften the note as well as change the tone. In uprights this action is not possible; instead the pedal moves the hammers closer to the strings, allowing the hammers to strike with less kinetic energy. This produces a slightly softer sound, but no change in timbre. On grand pianos, the middle pedal is a sostenuto pedal. This pedal keeps raised any damper already raised at the moment the pedal is depressed.
This makes it possible to sustain selected notes by depressing the sostenuto pedal before those notes are released while the player's hands are free to play additional notes which don't sustain. This can be useful for musical passages with low bass pedal points , in which a bass note is sustained while a series of chords changes over top of it, and other otherwise tricky parts. On many upright pianos, the middle pedal is called the "practice" or celeste pedal.
This drops a piece of felt between the hammers and strings, greatly muting the sounds. This pedal can be shifted while depressed, into a "locking" position. There are also non-standard variants. On some pianos grands and verticals , the middle pedal can be a bass sustain pedal: Players use this pedal to sustain a single bass note or chord over many measures, while playing the melody in the treble section. The rare transposing piano an example of which was owned by Irving Berlin has a middle pedal that functions as a clutch that disengages the keyboard from the mechanism, so the player can move the keyboard to the left or right with a lever.
This shifts the entire piano action so the pianist can play music written in one key so that it sounds in a different key. Some piano companies have included extra pedals other than the standard two or three. On the Stuart and Sons pianos as well as the largest Fazioli piano, there is a fourth pedal to the left of the principal three. This fourth pedal works in the same way as the soft pedal of an upright piano, moving the hammers closer to the strings.
Wing and Son of New York offered a five-pedal piano from approximately through the s. There is no mention of the company past the s. The Orchestral pedal produced a sound similar to a tremolo feel by bouncing a set of small beads dangling against the strings, enabling the piano to mimic a mandolin, guitar, banjo, zither and harp, thus the name Orchestral.
The Mandolin pedal used a similar approach, lowering a set of felt strips with metal rings in between the hammers and the strings aka rinky-tink effect. This extended the life of the hammers when the Orch pedal was used, a good idea for practicing, and created an echo-like sound that mimicked playing in an orchestral hall. The pedalier piano, or pedal piano , is a rare type of piano that includes a pedalboard so players can user their feet to play bass register notes, as on an organ.
There are two types of pedal piano. On one, the pedal board is an integral part of the instrument, using the same strings and mechanism as the manual keyboard. The other, rarer type, consists of two independent pianos each with separate mechanics and strings placed one above the other—one for the hands and one for the feet. This was developed primarily as a practice instrument for organists, though there is a small repertoire written specifically for the instrument.
When the key is struck, a chain reaction occurs to produce the sound. First, the key raises the "wippen" mechanism, which forces the jack against the hammer roller or knuckle. The hammer roller then lifts the lever carrying the hammer. The key also raises the damper; and immediately after the hammer strikes the wire it falls back, allowing the wire to resonate and thus produce sound.
When the key is released the damper falls back onto the strings, stopping the wire from vibrating, and thus stopping the sound. The irregular shape and off-center placement of the bridge ensure that the soundboard vibrates strongly at all frequencies. The piano hammer is "thrown" against the strings. This means that once a pianist has pressed or struck a key, and the hammer is set in motion towards the strings, the pressure on the key no longer leads to the player controlling the hammer.
A vibrating wire subdivides itself into many parts vibrating at the same time. Each part produces a pitch of its own, called a partial. A vibrating string has one fundamental and a series of partials. The most pure combination of two pitches is when one is double the frequency of the other.
On the piano string, waves reflect from both ends. Timbre is largely determined by the content of these harmonics. Different instruments have different harmonic content for the same pitch.
A real string vibrates at harmonics that are not perfect multiples of the fundamental. This results in a little inharmonicity , which gives richness to the tone but causes significant tuning challenges throughout the compass of the instrument. Striking the piano key with greater velocity increases the amplitude of the waves and therefore the volume. From pianissimo pp to fortissimo ff the hammer velocity changes by almost a factor of a hundred.
If one wire vibrates out of synchronization with the other, they subtract from each other and produce a softer tone of longer duration. Pianos are heavy and powerful, yet delicate instruments. Over the years, professional piano movers have developed special techniques for transporting both grands and uprights, which prevent damage to the case and to the piano's mechanical elements.
Pianos need regular tuning to keep them on correct pitch. The hammers of pianos are voiced to compensate for gradual hardening of the felt, and other parts also need periodic regulation. Pianos need regular maintenance to ensure the felt hammers and key mechanisms are functioning properly. Aged and worn pianos can be rebuilt or reconditioned by piano rebuilders.
Strings eventually must be replaced. Often, by replacing a great number of their parts, and adjusting them, old instruments can perform as well as new pianos. Piano tuning involves adjusting the tensions of the piano's strings with a specialized wrench, thereby aligning the intervals among their tones so that the instrument is in tune.
While guitar and violin players tune their own instruments, pianists usually hire a piano tuner , a specialized technician, to tune their pianos. The piano tuner uses special tools. The meaning of the term in tune in the context of piano tuning is not simply a particular fixed set of pitches.
Fine piano tuning carefully assesses the interaction among all notes of the chromatic scale, different for every piano, and thus requires slightly different pitches from any theoretical standard. Pianos are usually tuned to a modified version of the system called equal temperament see Piano key frequencies for the theoretical piano tuning. In all systems of tuning, each pitch is derived from its relationship to a chosen fixed pitch, usually the internationally recognized standard concert pitch of A 4 the A above middle C.
The relationship between two pitches, called an interval , is the ratio of their absolute frequencies. Two different intervals are perceived as the same when the pairs of pitches involved share the same frequency ratio. The easiest intervals to identify, and the easiest intervals to tune, are those that are just , meaning they have a simple whole-number ratio. The term temperament refers to a tuning system that tempers the just intervals usually the perfect fifth , which has the ratio 3: A temperament system is also known as a set of "bearings".
Tempering an interval causes it to beat , which is a fluctuation in perceived sound intensity due to interference between close but unequal pitches. The rate of beating is equal to the frequency differences of any harmonics that are present for both pitches and that coincide or nearly coincide. Piano tuners have to use their ear to " stretch " the tuning of a piano to make it sound in tune. This involves tuning the highest-pitched strings slightly higher and the lowest-pitched strings slightly lower than what a mathematical frequency table in which octaves are derived by doubling the frequency would suggest.
As with any other musical instrument, the piano may be played from written music , by ear , or through improvisation. Piano technique evolved during the transition from harpsichord and clavichord to fortepiano playing, and continued through the development of the modern piano. Changes in musical styles and audience preferences over the 19th and 20th century, as well as the emergence of virtuoso performers, contributed to this evolution and to the growth of distinct approaches or schools of piano playing.
Although technique is often viewed as only the physical execution of a musical idea, many pedagogues and performers stress the interrelatedness of the physical and mental or emotional aspects of piano playing. Many classical music composers, including Haydn , Mozart , and Beethoven , composed for the fortepiano , a rather different instrument than the modern piano.
The fortepiano was a quieter instrument with a narrower dynamic range and a smaller span of octaves. Even composers of the Romantic movement , like Liszt , Chopin , Robert Schumann , Felix Mendelssohn , and Johannes Brahms , wrote for pianos substantially different from era modern pianos. Contemporary musicians may adjust their interpretation of historical compositions from the s to the s to account for sound quality differences between old and new instruments or to changing performance practice.
Starting in Beethoven's later career, the fortepiano evolved into an instrument more like the modern piano of the s.
Modern pianos were in wide use by the late 19th century. They featured an octave range larger than the earlier fortepiano instrument, adding around 30 more keys to the instrument, which extended the deep bass range and the high treble range. Factory mass production of upright pianos made them more affordable for a larger number of middle-class people.
They appeared in music halls and pubs during the 19th century, providing entertainment through a piano soloist, or in combination with a small dance band. Just as harpsichordists had accompanied singers or dancers performing on stage, or playing for dances, pianists took up this role in the late s and in the following centuries.
During the 19th century, American musicians playing for working-class audiences in small pubs and bars, particularly African-American composers, developed new musical genres based on the modern piano. Ragtime music, popularized by composers such as Scott Joplin , reached a broader audience by The popularity of ragtime music was quickly succeeded by Jazz piano.
New techniques and rhythms were invented for the piano, including ostinato for boogie-woogie , and Shearing voicing. George Gershwin 's Rhapsody in Blue broke new musical ground by combining American jazz piano with symphonic sounds.
Comping , a technique for accompanying jazz vocalists on piano, was exemplified by Duke Ellington 's technique. Honky-tonk music, featuring yet another style of piano rhythm, became popular during the same era.
Bebop techniques grew out of jazz, with leading composer-pianists such as Thelonious Monk and Bud Powell. In the late 20th century, Bill Evans composed pieces combining classical techniques with his jazz experimentation. In the s, Herbie Hancock was one of the first jazz composer-pianists to find mainstream popularity working with newer urban music techniques such as jazz-funk and jazz-rock. Modernist styles of music have also appealed to composers writing for the modern grand piano, including John Cage and Philip Glass.
The piano is a crucial instrument in Western classical music , jazz , blues , rock , folk music , and many other Western musical genres. A large number of composers and songwriters are proficient pianists because the piano keyboard offers an effective means of experimenting with complex melodic and harmonic interplay and trying out multiple, independent melody lines that are played at the same time. Pianos are used in film and television scoring, as the large range permits composers to try out melodies and basslines, even if the music will be orchestrated for other instruments.
Bandleaders often learn the piano, as it is an excellent instrument for learning new pieces and songs to lead in performance. The piano is an essential tool in music education in elementary and secondary schools, and universities and colleges. Most music classrooms and practice rooms have a piano. Pianos are used to help teach music theory, music history and music appreciation classes. Many conductors are trained in piano, because it allows them to play parts of the symphonies they are conducting using a piano reduction or doing a reduction from the full score , so that they can develop their interpretation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the musical instrument. For other uses, see Piano disambiguation. For earliest versions of the instrument only, see Fortepiano. For the film, see Pianoforte film. Frédéric Chopin 's Étude Op. Innovations in the piano. For other uses, see Grand Piano disambiguation.
An key piano, with the octaves numbered and Middle C cyan and A yellow highlighted. Notations used for the sustain pedal in sheet music. Social history of the piano. Piano portal Music portal. Retrieved January 26, The Oxford Companion to Music 10th ed. Oxford and New York: Peterson , "Acoustics of the hammered dulcimer, its history, and recent developments", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 95 5 , p. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
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