The volume Händel-Gesellschaft "Handel Society" edition was published between and — mainly due to the efforts of Friedrich Chrysander. The unification of Germany in removed communication problems, and the volumes issued have since shown a significant improvement in standards.
Mainwaring has Handel traveling to Berlin the next year, Early biographers solved the problem by making the year of the trip , then noting that at the age of 11 Handel would need a guardian, so they have Handel's father or a friend of the family accompany him, all the while puzzling over why the elder Handel, who wanted Handel to become a lawyer, would spend the sum to lead his son further into the temptation of music as a career.
Perhaps to fulfill a promise to his father or simply because he saw himself as "dedicated to the liberal arts," on 10 February Handel matriculated at the University of Halle. A firm Lutheran, he nevertheless strongly advocated the separation of church and state, famously denouncing the witch trials then prevalent. Lang believes that Thomasius instilled in Handel a "respect for the dignity and freedom of man's mind and the solemn majesty of the law," principles that would have drawn him to and kept him in England for half a century.
The orphanage he founded became a model for Germany, and undoubtedly influenced Handel's own charitable impulse, when he assigned the rights of Messiah to London's Foundling Hospital. Shortly after commencing his university education, Handel though Lutheran [o] on 13 March accepted the position of organist at the Calvinist Cathedral in Halle, the Domkirche, replacing J. Leporin, for whom he had acted as assistant.
From it he received 5 thalers a year and lodgings in the run-down castle of Moritzburg. Around this same time Handel made the acquaintance of Telemann. Four years Handel's senior, Telemann was studying law and assisting cantor Johann Kuhnau Bach 's predecessor at the Thomaskirche there.
Telemann recalled forty years later in an autobiography for Mattheson's Grundlage: Although Mainwaring records that Handel wrote weekly when assistant to Zachow and as probationary organist at Domkirche part of his duty was to provide suitable music, [p] no sacred compositions from his Halle period can now be identified.
Early chamber works do exist, but it is difficult to date any of them to Handel's time in Halle. Many historians until recently followed Chrysander and designated the six trio sonatas for two oboes and basso continuo as his first known composition, supposedly written in when Handel was Lang writes that the works "show thorough acquaintance with the distilled sonata style of the Corelli school " and are notable for "the formal security and the cleanness of the texture.
Handel's probationary appointment to Domkirche expired in March By July [q] Handel was in Hamburg. Since he left no explanation for the move [r] biographers have offered their own speculation. Burrows believes that the answer can be found by untangling Mainwaring's confused chronology of the trip to Berlin. Burrows dates this trip to or after his father's death and concluded that since Handel through a "friend and relation" at the Berlin court turned down Frederick's offer to subsidize his musical education in Italy with the implicit understanding that he would become a court musician on his return , Handel was no longer able to expect preferment whether as musician, lawyer or otherwise within Brandenburg-Prussia.
And since he was attracted to secular, dramatic music by meeting the Italians Bononcini and Attilio Ariosti and through the influence of Telemann , Hamburg, a free city with an established opera company, was the logical choice.
Lang suggests that, influenced by the teachings of Thomasius, Handel's character was such that he was unable to make himself subservient to anyone, even a king. Lang sees Handel as someone who could not accept class distinctions that required him to regard himself as a social inferior. In he accepted a position as violinist and harpsichordist in the orchestra of the Hamburg Oper am Gänsemarkt.
His first two operas, Almira and Nero , were produced in It is unclear whether Handel directed these performances. According to Mainwaring, in Handel travelled to Italy at the invitation of Ferdinando de' Medici. De' Medici, who had a keen interest in opera, was trying to make Florence Italy's musical capital by attracting the leading talents of his day.
In Italy Handel met librettist Antonio Salvi , with whom he later collaborated. Handel left for Rome and, since opera was temporarily banned in the Papal States , composed sacred music for the Roman clergy.
His famous Dixit Dominus is from this era. He also composed cantatas in pastoral style for musical gatherings in the palaces of cardinals Pietro Ottoboni , Benedetto Pamphili and Carlo Colonna. Two oratorios , La resurrezione and Il trionfo del tempo , were produced in a private setting for Ruspoli and Ottoboni in and , respectively. Rodrigo , his first all-Italian opera, was produced in the Cocomero theatre in Florence in The opera, with a libretto by Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani , ran for 27 nights successively.
With his opera Rinaldo , based on La Gerusalemme Liberata by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso , Handel enjoyed great success, although it was composed quickly, with many borrowings from his older Italian works. In , Handel decided to settle permanently in England.
One of his most important patrons was The 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork , a young and extremely wealthy member of an Anglo-Irish aristocratic family. The conception of an opera as a coherent structure was slow to capture Handel's imagination  and he composed no operas for five years. It is said the compositions spurred reconciliation between the King, supposedly annoyed by the composer's abandonment of his Hanover post, and Handel.
In Handel became house composer at Cannons in Middlesex , where he laid the cornerstone for his future choral compositions in the twelve Chandos Anthems.
Winton Dean wrote, "the music catches breath and disturbs the memory". In the Duke of Chandos became one of the composer's important patrons and main subscribers to his new opera company, the Royal Academy of Music , but his patronage declined after Chandos lost money in the South Sea bubble , which burst in in one of history's greatest financial cataclysms.
Handel himself invested in South Sea stock in , when prices were low  and sold before He saw Teofane by Antonio Lotti , and engaged members of the cast for the Royal Academy of Music, founded by a group of aristocrats to assure themselves a constant supply of baroque opera or opera seria.
Handel may have invited John Smith, his fellow student in Halle, and his son Johann Christoph Schmidt , to become his secretary and amanuensis. Handel's operas are filled with da capo arias , such as Svegliatevi nel core. After composing Silete venti , he concentrated on opera and stopped writing cantatas. Scipio , from which the regimental slow march of the British Grenadier Guards is derived,  was performed as a stopgap, waiting for the arrival of Faustina Bordoni.
One of these, Zadok the Priest , has been played at every British coronation ceremony since. The Queen's Theatre at the Haymarket now Her Majesty's Theatre , established in by architect and playwright John Vanbrugh , quickly became an opera house.
Handel travelled to Italy to engage new singers and also composed seven more operas, among them the comic masterpiece Partenope and the "magic" opera Orlando. Handel reworked his Acis and Galatea which then became his most successful work ever.
Handel failed to compete with the Opera of the Nobility , who engaged musicians such as Johann Adolph Hasse , Nicolo Porpora and the famous castrato Farinelli. The strong support by Frederick, Prince of Wales caused conflicts in the royal family. Despite the problems the Opera of the Nobility was causing him at the time, Handel's neighbour in Brook Street, Mary Delany , reported on a party she invited Handel to at her house on 12 April where he was in good spirits:.
I had Lady Rich and her daughter, Lady Cath. Hanmer and her husband, Mr. Percival, Sir John Stanley and my brother, Mrs. Donellan, Strada [star soprano of Handel's operas] and Mr. Lord Shaftesbury begged of Mr. Percival to bring him, and being a profess'd friend of Mr. Handel who was here also was admitted; I never was so well entertained at an opera! Handel was in the best humour in the world, and played lessons and accompanied Strada and all the ladies that sang from seven o'clock till eleven.
I gave them tea and coffee, and about half an hour after nine had a salver brought in of chocolate, mulled white wine and biscuits. Everybody was easy and seemed pleased. In the Earl of Essex received a letter with the following sentence: The board of chief investors expected Handel to retire when his contract ended, but Handel immediately looked for another theatre.
Rich was renowned for his spectacular productions. He suggested Handel use his small chorus and introduce the dancing of Marie Sallé , for whom Handel composed Terpsicore.
In he introduced organ concertos between the acts. For the first time Handel allowed Gioacchino Conti , who had no time to learn his part, to substitute arias.
In April , at age 52, Handel apparently suffered a stroke which disabled the use of four fingers on his right hand, preventing him from performing. Nobody expected that Handel would ever be able to perform again.
But whether the affliction was rheumatism, a stroke or a nervous breakdown, he recovered remarkably quickly. During six weeks he took long hot baths, and ended up playing the organ for a surprised audience. Deidamia , his last opera, a co-production with the Earl of Holderness ,  was performed three times in Handel gave up the opera business, while he enjoyed more success with his English oratorios. Il trionfo del tempo e del disinganno , an allegory , Handel's first oratorio  was composed in Italy in , followed by La resurrezione in which uses material from the Bible.
The circumstances of Esther and its first performance, possibly in , are obscure. Next came Deborah , strongly coloured by the coronation anthems  and Athaliah , his first English Oratorio.
It is evident how much he learned from Arcangelo Corelli about writing for instruments, and from Alessandro Scarlatti about writing for the solo voice; but there is no single composer who taught him how to write for chorus.
The most significant reason for this change was the dwindling financial returns from his operas. The performances were given without costumes and action; the singers appeared in their own clothes. In Handel produced Alexander's Feast. John Beard appeared for the first time as one of Handel's principal singers and became Handel's permanent tenor soloist for the rest of Handel's life. In Saul , Handel was collaborating with Charles Jennens and experimenting with three trombones, a carillon and extra-large military kettledrums from the Tower of London , to be sure " In his next works Handel changed his course.
In these works he laid greater stress on the effects of orchestra and soloists; the chorus retired into the background.
During the summer of , The 3rd Duke of Devonshire invited Handel to Dublin , capital of the Kingdom of Ireland , to give concerts for the benefit of local hospitals. In Handel wrote his oratorio Alexander Balus.
He strikes the golden lyre , Handel wrote the accompaniment for mandolin , harp , violin , viola , and violoncello. The use of English soloists reached its height at the first performance of Samson.
The work is highly theatrical. The role of the chorus became increasingly important in his later oratorios. Jephtha was first performed on 26 February ; even though it was his last oratorio, it was no less a masterpiece than his earlier works.
In Handel composed Music for the Royal Fireworks ; 12, people attended the first performance. The performance was considered a great success and was followed by annual concerts that continued throughout his life. In recognition of his patronage, Handel was made a governor of the Hospital the day after his initial concert.
He bequeathed a copy of Messiah to the institution upon his death. In addition to the Foundling Hospital, Handel also gave to a charity that assisted impoverished musicians and their families. In August , on a journey back from Germany to London, Handel was seriously injured in a carriage accident between The Hague and Haarlem in the Netherlands.
The cause was a cataract which was operated on by the great charlatan Chevalier Taylor. This did not improve his eyesight, but possibly made it worse. He died in at home in Brook Street, at age The last performance he attended was of Messiah.
Handel was buried in Westminster Abbey. Handel never married, and kept his personal life private. His initial will bequeathed the bulk of his estate to his niece Johanna, however four codicils distributed much of his estate to other relations, servants, friends and charities. Handel owned an art collection that was auctioned posthumously in Handel's compositions include 42 operas, 29 oratorios, more than cantatas, trios and duets, numerous arias, chamber music, a large number of ecumenical pieces, odes and serenatas, and 16 organ concerti.
His most famous work, the oratorio Messiah with its "Hallelujah" chorus, is among the most popular works in choral music and has become the centrepiece of the Christmas season. The Lobkowicz Palace in Prague holds Mozart's copy of Messiah , complete with handwritten annotations.
Among the works with opus numbers published and popularised in his lifetime are the Organ Concertos Op. Also notable are his sixteen keyboard suites, especially The Harmonious Blacksmith. Handel introduced previously uncommon musical instruments in his works: Cecilia's Day , three trombones Saul , clarinets or small high cornetts Tamerlano , theorbo , French horn Water Music , lyrichord, double bassoon , viola da gamba , carillon bell chimes , positive organ , and harp Giulio Cesare , Alexander's Feast.
The first published catalogue of Handel's works appeared as an appendix to Mainwaring's Memoirs. The volume Händel-Gesellschaft "Handel Society" edition was published between and — mainly due to the efforts of Friedrich Chrysander.
For modern performance, the realisation of the basso continuo reflects 19th century practice. Vocal scores drawn from the edition were published by Novello in London, but some scores, such as the vocal score to Samson , are incomplete.
German Book Trading Inc. The DBH stated a volume of million Euro for the first accounting year The company manages about branches of both of the proprietor companies with about employees effective: The remaining 45 departments were closed and the employees were moved to other departments.
Thalia tried the same but lost the competition for the partnership with Karstadt. Since , huge measures of restructuring were adopted in the group for reducing personnel costs.
Since May , more layoffs followed in the dependent Weltbild plus. The administration of these companies moved completely to the central office of the DBH. At Wohlthat , the measure could be largely implemented unchecked and closed to the public.
In Berlin and Potsdam, the local works council was able to delay and to arouse public interest supported by the trade union Ver. In the end of , the work councils in the DBH group established a Konzernbetriebsrat i.
This happened for expanding workers participation in the departments. The Konzernbetriebsrat is able to kick-start elections for works councils in those enterprises which have difficulties to manage this on their own. Besides this task, the local works councils which have much more power than the Konzernbetriebsrat in their range but none beyond shall get an efficient early warning system to be on notice of new plannings of the group management.
Other than the competitor Thalia, so far the single dependents keep their origin firm's names. On the managements admission, the dependents shall keep their company profile as well.
Like the other huge German bookstore chains Thalia and Mayersche the DBH uses the capacities of logistics and central warehouse of the German book wholesaler Libri. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.